Free Shipping on orders over $100 Contact |

Probiotics Used in Human Studies. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 39(6):469-484, July 2005.
Montrose, David C BA *; Floch, Martin H MD +

There is a large literature available in credible journals that report benefit of probiotic administration using a wide range of doses, organisms, and clinical situations.

A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6-month intervention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Sep 1;22(5):387-94.

The results indicate that this probiotic mixture is effective in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Considering the high prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and the lack of effective therapies, even a slight reduction in symptoms could have positive public health consequences.

The effects of probiotics on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jun;47(6):413-9.

Medilac DS (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecium) was well tolerated without adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Medilac DS is a safe and useful probiotic agent for the treatment of abdominal pain in patients with IBS.

Paraghurt (freeze-dried culture of Streptococcus faecium) for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A controlled clinical investigation from general practice. Scand J Prim Health Care. 1989 Mar;7(1):23-6.

After four weeks 81% of the Paraghurt- and 41% of the placebo-treated patients had improved according to the physicians' overall assessment (p = 0.002). The result of the trial suggests that Paraghurt is a valuable alternative in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health. J Nutr 2000 Feb;130(2S Suppl):396S-402S
Rolfe RD. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock 79430, USA.

Probiotics have been examined for their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of a diverse spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders. There are many mechanisms by which probiotics enhance intestinal health, including stimulation of immunity, competition for limited nutrients, inhibition of epithelial and mucosal adherence, inhibition of epithelial invasion and production of antimicrobial substances. Probiotics represent an exciting prophylactic and therapeutic advance, although additional investigations must be undertaken before their role in intestinal health can be delineated clearly.

Potential use of probiotics. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2003, 25(2) : 275-282
Chukeatirote, E.

Use of microbial probiotics to promote health maintenance and disease prevention is now widely accepted. Viable microbes possibly play a key role in balancing the intestinal microflora naturally. Beneficial effects of use of microbial probiotics are now well documented.

Irritable bowel syndrome affects between 25 and 55 million Americans every year. Characterized by abdominal cramping, bloating, and changes in bowel function, IBS is a very uncomfortable condition, which can interfere with all aspects of life. Fibromyalgia is often associated with IBS, and anywhere between 30% and 70% of fibromyalgia sufferers will have to battle with this illness. In fact, more and more research indicates that the causes of fibromyalgia and IBS are similar, and perhaps even identical.

Diagnosing the Patient with Abdominal Pain and Altered Bowel Habits: Is It Irritable Bowel Syndrome? American Family Physician, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians, , May 15, 2003.
KEITH B. HOLTEN, M.D., and ANTHONY WETHERINGTON, M.D., University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio ,LAURIE BANKSTON, M.D., Clinton Memorial Hospital, Wilmington, Ohio


Americans spend $8 billion each year on medical costs related to IBS3 and absenteeism resulting from IBS significantly affects the work force. Studies have shown that IBS affects 3 to 22 percent of persons worldwide.4 Symptoms are reported by 12 percent of Americans and are the cause of 20 to 50 percent of referrals to gastroenterology clinics.5,6 Most people with IBS do not seek medical care.


Rates of IBS among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular joint syndrome are high (92, 77, and 64 percent, respectively).18


3. Talley NJ, Gabriel SE, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, Evans RW. Medical costs in community subjects with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 1995;109:1736-41.

4. Locke GR 3d, Zinsmeister AR, Talley NJ, Fett SL, Melton LJ. Risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: role of analgesics and food sensitivities. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:157-65.

5. Locke GR 3d. The epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders in North America. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996;25:1-19.

6. Maxwell PR, Mendall MA, Kumar D. Irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1997;350:1691-5.

18.Aaron LA, Burke MM, Buchwald D. Overlapping conditions among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular disorder. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:221-7.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (Los Angeles, CA), has been granted a patent (#6,861,053), in which they describe small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), in the human gut as a common etiology in several disease states:

"Disclosed is a method of diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus, or Crohn's disease, which involves detecting the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in a human subject having at least one symptom associated with a suspected diagnosis of any of those diagnostic categories. Also disclosed is a method of treating these disorders, and other disorders caused by SIBO, that involves at least partially eradicating a SIBO condition in the human subject...

...Another preferred method of at least partially eradicating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth employs a probiotic agent, for example, an inoculum of a lactic acid bacterium or bifidobacterium. (A. S. Naidu et al., Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 39(1):13-126 [1999]; J. A. Vanderhoof et al. [1998]; G. W. Tannock, Probiotic propertyies of lactic acid bacteria: plenty of scope for R & D, Trends Biotechnol. 15(7):270-74 [1997]; S. Salminen et al., Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilizing the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains and future challenges, Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 70(2-4):347-58 [1997]). The inoculum is delivered in a pharmaceutically acceptable ingestible formulation, such as in a capsule...

...After at least partially eradicating the bacterial overgrowth, in accordance with the present method, the symptom(s) of irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, ADHD, an autoimmune disease, or Crohn's disease are improved."

Other Resources

Veale D, Kavanagh G, Fielding JF, Fitzgerald O. Primary fibromyalgia and the irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Rheumatol. 1991;30:220-222.

Lubrano E, Iovino P, Tremolaterra F, et al. Fibromyalgia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. An association with the severity of the intestinal disorder. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2001;16:211-215.

Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 Criteria for the Classification of Fibromyalgia. Report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33:160-172.

Adami, A. and Cavazzoni, V. 1999. Occurrence of selected bacterial groups in the faeces of piglets fed with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic. J. Basic Microbiol., 39: 3-9.

Austin, B., Stuckey, L.F., Robertson, P.A.W., Effendi, I. and Griffith, D.R.W. 1995. A probiotic strain

of Vibrio alginolyticus effective in reducing diseases caused by Aeromonas salmonicida,V. anguillarum and V. ordalii. J. Fish Dis., 18:93-96.

Bernet, M.F., Brassart, D., Neeser, J.R. and Servin, A.L. 1994. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by enterovirulent bacteria. Gut, 35: 483-489.

Burns, A.J. and Rowland, I.R. 2000. Anit-carcinogenicity of probiotics and prebiotics. Curr. Issues Intest. Microbiol., 1: 13-24.

Casas, I.A. and Dobrogosz, W.J. 1997. Lactobacillus reuteri: overview of a new probiotic for humans and animals. Microecol. Ther., 26: 221-231.

Casula, G. and Cutting, S.M. 2002. Bacillus probiotics: spore germination in the gastrointestinal tract. App. Environ. Microbiol., 68: 2344-2352.

Charteris, W.P., Kelly, P.M., Morelli, L. and Collins, J.K. 1998. Antibiotic susceptibility of potentially probiotic Bifidobacteriumisolates from the human gastrointestinal tract. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 26: 333-337.

Donohue, D.C. and Salminen, S. 1996. Safety of probiotic bacteria. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 5: 25-28.

Dupuis, C., Corr, C. and Boyaval, P. 1995. Proteinase activity of dairy propionibacteria. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 42: 750-755.

Fang, H., Elina, T., Heikki, A. and Seppo, S. 2000. Modulation of humoral immune response through probiotic intake. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 29: 47-52.

Fuller, R. 1994. Probiotics: an overview. In: Human health: the contribution of microorganisms (Ed. by S.A.W. Gibson), pp. 63-73. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Fuller, R. 1991. Probiotics in human medicine. Gut, 32: 439-442.

Gill, H.S., Rutherfurd, K.J., Cross, M.L. and Gopal, P.K. 2001a. Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 74: 833-839.

Gill, H.S., Shu, Q., Lin, H., Rutherfurd, K.J. and Cross, M.L. 2001b. Protection against translocating Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice by feeding the immuno-enhancing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001. Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 190: 97-104.

Glatz, B. 1992. The classical propionibacteria: their past, present, and future as industrial organisms. ASM News, 58: 197-201.

Goldin, B.R. and Gorbach, S.L. 1984. The effect of milk and Lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 39: 756-761.

Gonzalez, S.N., Cardoza, R., Apella, M.C. and Oliver, G. 1995. Biotherapeutic role of fermented milk. Biotherapy, 8: 129-134.

Green, D.H., Wakeley, P.R., Page, A., Barnes, A., Baccigalupi, L., Ricca, E. and Cutting, S.M. 1999. Characterisation of two Bacillus probiotics. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65: 4288-4291.

Greene, J.D. and Klaenhammer, T.R. 1994. Factors involved in adherence of lactobacilli to human Caco-2 cells. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 60: 4487-4494.

Havenaar, R., ten Brink, B. and Huis in’t Veld, J.H.J.

1992. Selection of strains for probiotic use. In: Probiotics, the scientific basis (Ed. by R. Fuller), pp. 209-224. London: Chapman and Hall.

Holzapfel, W.H., Haberer, P., Snel, J., Schillinger, U. and Huis in’t Veld, J.H. 1998. Overview of gut flora and probiotics. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 41: 85-101.

Ishibashi, N. and Yamazaki, S. 2001. Probiotics and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73: 465S-470S.

Isolauri, E., Joensuu, J., Suomalainen, H., Luomala, M. and Vesikari, T. 1995. Improved immunogenicity of oral DxRRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine, 13: 310-312.

Isolauri, E., Salminen, E. and Salminen, S. 1998. Lactic acid bacteria and immune modulation. In: Lactic acid bacteria: microbiology and functional aspects (Ed. by S. Salminen and A. von Wright), pp. 255-268. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Jack, R.W., Tagg, J.R. and Ray, B. 1994. Bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria. Microbiol. Rev., 59: 171-200.

Joborn, A. 1998. The role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the prevention of bacterial infections in fish. Ph.D. Thesis, Gothenburg University.

Kaneko, T., Mori, H., Iwata, M. and Meguro, S. 1994. Growth stimulator for bifidobacteria produced by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and several intestinal bacteria. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 393-404.

Kaur, I.P., Chopra, K. and Saini, A. 2001. Probiotics: potential pharmaceutical applications. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 15: 1-9.

Kirjavainen, P.E., Ouwehand, A.C., Isolauri, E. and Salminen, S.J. 1998. The ability of probiotic bacteria to bind to human intestinal mucus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 167: 185-189.

Ling, W.H., Korpela, R., Mykkanen, H., Salminen, S. and Hanninen, O. 1994. Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults. J. Nutr., 124: 18-23.

Lilley, D.M. and Stillwell, R.H. 1965. Probiotics: growth promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Science, 147: 747-748.

Matsuzaki, T. 1998. Immunomodulation by treatment with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 41: 133-140.

Mazza, P., Zani, F. and Martelli, P. 1992. Studies on the antibiotic resistance of Bacillus subtilis strains used in oral bacteriotherapy. Boll. Chim. Farm.,131: 401-408.

Metchnikoff, E. 1908. The prolongation of life. New York: CP Putnam’s Sons.

Netherwood, T., Gilbert, H.J., Parker, D.S. and O’ Donnell, A.G. 1999. Probiotics shown to change bacterial community structure in the avian gastrointestinal tract. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65: 5134-5138.

Nikoskelainen, S., Salminen, S., Bylund, G. and Ouwehand, A.C. 2001. Characterisation of the properties of human- and dairy-derived probiotics for prevention of infectious diseases in fish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67: 2430-2435.

Ouwehand, A.C., Kirjavainen, P.V., Gronlund, M.M., Isolauri, E. and Salminen, S. 1999. Adhesion of probiotic micro-organisms to intestinal mucus. Int. Dairy J., 9: 623-630.

Perdigon, G., Alvarez, S., Rachid, M., Aquero, G. and Gobbato, N. 1995. Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 1597-1606.

Reddy, B.S. 1998. Prevention of colon cancer by preand probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. Br. J. Nutr., 80: S219-S223.

Reid, G. 1999. The scientific basis for probiotic strains of Lactobacillus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65: 3763-3766.

Reid, G. and Burton, J. 2002. Use of Lactobacillus to prevent infection by pathogenic bacteria. Microbes Infect., 4: 319-324.

Reid, G., Servin, A., Bruce, A.W. and Busscher, H.J. 1993. Adhesion of three Lactobacillus strains to human urinary and intestinal epithelial cells. Microbios, 75: 57-65.

Robertson, P.A.W., O’Dowd, C., Burrells, C., Williams, P. and Austin, B. 2000. Use of Carnobacterium sp. As a probiotic for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Aquaculture, 185: 235-243.

Saarela, M., Mogensen, G., Fonden, R., Matto, J. and Mattila-Sandholm, T. 2000. Probiotic bacteria: safety, functional and technological properties. J. Biotechnol., 84: 197-215.

Salminen, S., Deighton, M.A., Benno, Y. and Gorbach, S.L. 1998. Lactic acid bacteria in health and disease. In: Lactic acid bacteria: microbiology and functional aspects (Ed. by S. Salminen and A. von Wright), pp. 211-253. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Salminen, S., Isolauri, E. and Salminen, E. 1996a. Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilising the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains and future challenges. Antonie Leeuwenhoek, 70: 347-358.

Salminen, S., Isolauri, E. and Salminen, E. 1996b. Probiotics and stabilisation of the gut mucosal barrier. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 5: 53-56.

Salminen, S., Ouwehand, A.C., Benno, Y. and Lee, Y.K. 1999. Probiotics: how should they be defined? Trends Food Sci. Technol., 10: 107-110.

Sanderson, I.R. and Walker, W.A. 1993. Uptake and transport of macromolecules by the intestine: possible role in clinical disorders (an update). Gastroenterology, 104: 622-639.

Sarem-Damerdjii, L.O., Sarem, F., Marchal, L. and Nicolas, J.P. 1995. In vitro colonisation ability of human colon mucosa by exogenous Lactobacillus strains. FEMS Micorbiol. Lett., 131: 133-137.

Simon, G.L. and Gorbach, S.L. 1984. Intestinal flora in health and disease. Gastroenterology, 86: 174- 193.

Spanhaak, S., Havenaar, R. and Schaafsma, G. 1998. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 52: 899-907.

Wymer, P. 1998. The application of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria in food products in Europe. A workshop organised by the Lactic Acid Bacteria Industrial Platform, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 16-18, 1998.

Zarate, G., Morata De Ambrosini, V., Perez Chaia, A. and Gonzales, S. 2002. Some factors affecting the adherence of probiotic Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL1198 to intestinal epithelial cells. Can. J. Microbiol., 48: 449-457.

Back to Top